The divisive character of public works programmes

Among the tools of labour market, public works is one of the oldest; therefore its use is almost natural. Although at the same time it is the aim of public works, the extent and targetedness of its use which decide whether public works functions as an active tool of employment policy or rather as a socio-political tool to manage poverty. Connecting welfare to public works (workfare) can only be understood related to reintegration efforts aiming at the unemployed and also to fighting poverty.

Employment conditions of the EU

The case-study analyses the main economic conditions of the EU from points of view of emphasizing the employment, human resource management at EU-27 level. The different unemployment levels of EU member states stimulated the increasing gap between member states in GDP per capita, which was from 44% to 271% of the EU-27 average at the beginning of 2011. The unemployment rate of EU-27 increased from 6,7% in 2000 to 8,8% in 2010 based on the internal market conditions and influences of the world economic crisis after 2008.